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Some Types of CHD and Surgical Procedures
 
Defect
 
Surgical Procedure(s)
 
Palliation
(not “cured” or “fixed”) or Repair
Acyanotic (normal blood oxygen) or Cyanotic (decreased blood oxygen) after Repair
Aortic Stenosis (narrowing of the aortic valve)
 
Balloon valvuloplasty (catheterization lab), valvotomy, or Ross procedure, valve replacement
Valvotomy may only be palliation; Ross procedure is final repair
Acyanotic
Atrial Septal Defect  (hole in the atrial septum, or muscle wall, that separates the right and left atria)
Device closure (catheterization lab), patch closure
Repair
Acyanotic
Complete Atrioventricular Canal (large hole in the top and bottom of the heart with a central common valve that did not form as two)
Pulmonary artery (PA) band (not first choice), patch closure with repair
PA band is palliation
Acyanotic
Coarctation of Aorta (narrowing of the aorta)
Balloon dilation (catheterization lab), subclavian flap, end-to-end anastomosis or patch repair
Repair
Acyanotic
Dilated Cardiomyopathy (muscle wall of left ventricle is weak and may become enlarged)
No treatment for mild cases. Sometimes medication. Transplant for severe cases.
Either palliation or repair depending on treatment.
Acyanotic
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (absence of left ventricle, severe narrowing of mitral valve (left sided valve) and string like Aorta)
Norwood procedure
Bidirectional Glenn
Fontan
All are palliations
 
Cyanotic
Cyanotic
Acyanotic (with no fenestration)
Interrupted Aortic Arch (missing part of the aorta, it stops and restarts)
Reconstruction of arch, ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure
Repair
Acyanotic
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (vascular connection between pulmonary artery and aorta)
Coil, device occlusion (catheterization lab), ligate or clip via video-assisted thorascopic surgery or open surgery
Repair
Acyanotic
Pulmonary Atresia (absence or severe narrowing of the pulmonary (lung) artery)
Homograft placement or shunt (more complicated and then cyanotic after)
Repair (may require further surgeries as child grows)
Acyanotic
Pulmonary Stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve)
Balloon valvuloplasty (catheterization lab), valvotomy
Repair
Acyanotic
Tetralogy of Fallot (thick right side of heart, hole between two ventricles (VSD), narrowing of various degrees of pulmonary artery and enlarged and slightly displaced aorta)
Blalock-Taussig, BT. shunt
Palliation
Cyanotic
Pulmonary artery correction and VSD closure
Repair
Acyanotic
Transposition of Great Arteries (most common form) (aorta and pulmonary artery reversed and over wrong side of heart)
Arterial switch
Repair
Acyanotic
Tricuspid Atresia (absence of right ventricle and right sided valve)
Shunt
Bidirectional Glenn shunt
Fontan
All are palliations
Cyanotic
Cyanotic
Acyanotic (with no fenestration)
Truncus Arteriosus (common vessel from center of heart that provides blood flow to lungs and body as well as a hole in the bottom of the heart)
Placement of homograft conduit and VSD closure
Repair, but children will need further surgeries as they outgrow homograft
Acyanotic
VSD (hole in the bottom of the heart between the bottom chambers, ventricles)
Patch closure
Repair
Acyanotic
 
 
Glossary & Common CHD Abbreviation Meanings

©       AS:  aortic stenosis

©       ASD:  Atrial Septal Defect

©       AVC or AV Canal Defect:  Atrioventricular Canal Defect; aka Endocardial cushion defect

©       Aneurysm: a bulging of the wall of an artery, vein, or wall of the heart.

©       Aorta: the main artery that supplies the blood and oxygen to the body. It usually comes off the left ventricle
(main pumping chamber).

©       Aortic Valve: the valve between the aorta and the left ventricle (main pumping chamber). The aortic valve
usually has three leaflets.

©       Arrhythmia: an abnormal pattern of the beating of the heart.

©       Atrial Septum: the muscular wall between the two collecting chambers of the heart (left atrium
and right atrium).

©       Atrio-Ventricular Node (AV Node): part of the electrical (conduction) pathway of the heart that tells the
ventricles
when to beat (usually after the atria).

©       Atrium: one of the two upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium collects un-oxygenated blood (blue blood)
from the body.
The left atrium collects oxygenated blood from the lungs.

©       BE:  Bacterial Endocarditis: an infection of the inner layer and/or valves of the heart, caused by bacteria.

©       Blalock-Hanlon:  surgical septostomy performed for palliative treatment of TGV

©       BT Shunt:  Blalock-Taussig shunt:  surgical procedure; systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt procedure

©       Blood Pressure: the pressure of the blood in the arteries. Systolic blood pressure is the top number when
the heart is contracted. Diastolic blood pressure is the bottom number when the heart is relaxed.

©       Bradycardia: abnormally slow heart rate.

©       CAVC: complete atrioventricular canal; main heart defect seen in Down sydrome

©       Cardiopulmonary Bypass: a machine that can perform the function of the heart and lung.

©       Catheterization: a diagnostic test in which a catheter is inserted into the heart to measure pressure and
oxygen, and to take pictures (angiography).

©       CHD:  Congenital Heart Defects, Congenital Heart Disease, or Congestive Heart Disease

©       CHF:  Congestive Heart Failure:  a condition in which the heart cannot pump well enough, and there is
backup of blood and congestion in the veins and lungs.

©       CoA:  coarctation of the aorta

©       CXR: chest x-ray

©       Cyanosis: blueness of the lips and fingernails, caused by a decreased amount of oxygen in the blood.

©       D-TGA:  dextro transposition of great arteries

©       ECHO:  echocardiography; diagnostic tool that uses Doppler techniques to evaluate blood flow patterns
and pressures

©      ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) a technique of providing respiratory support;
the blood is circulated through an artificial lung made up of two compartments separated by a gas-permeable
membrane, with the blood on one side and the ventilating gas on the other.

©       ECG or EKG:  electrocardiogram

©       Fenestration:  surgical creation of an opening, sometimes used in Fontans

©       Glenn or Bidirectional Glenn shunt:  surgical procedure;superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery
anastomosis (the large vein from the upper body is directly connected to the lung blood vessels )

©      Fontan:  surgical procedure; a combined procedure for complex congenital heart defects (directs
blood from the large vein from the lower part of the body up to the right side of the heart to the lung
arteries/Glenn).

©       FTT:  failure to thrive

©       HLHS:  hypoplastic left heart syndrome

©       HRHS:  hypoplastic right heart syndrome

©       HTN: Hypertension: high blood pressure.

©       IAA:  Interrupted Aortic Arch

©       Ischemia: lack of blood supply to an organ or tissue.

©       Jantene operation:  a surgical procedure; a type of arterial switch procedure

©       LA:  Left Atrium

©       MPA:  main pulmonary artery

©       Mitral Valve: a valve of two leaflets, between the left atrium and left ventricle.

©      Murmur: an extra heart sound that may be heard between the heart sounds. Murmurs may be
normal or abnormal. They are caused by increased turbulence of the blood as it moves
through the heart, much like water flowing over rocks in a stream.

©       Myocarditis: an inflammation of the heart muscle, usually caused by a virus or bacteria.

©       MI:  Myocardial Infarction: heart muscle which dies because of lack of oxygen, usually called a
heart attack when it occurs in an adult.

©       Norwood: surgical procedure that is typically the first surgery for many single ventricle defects;
conversion of Right ventricle into the systemic or working ventricle

©       Pa02:  arterial oxygen tension

©       Palliative:  treating or helping symptoms without curing

©       PA:  pulmonary artery

©       PAPVC:  partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

©       PDA:  patent ductus arteriousus

©       PFO:  patent foramen ovalae

©       Pericarditis: an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart.

©       PGE1:  prostaglandin E1; medication administered to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus

©       PS: pulmonary stenosis (narrowing)

©       PV:  Pulmonary valve: the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

©       PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance

©       OHS:  Open Heart Surgery: surgery performed on the open heart while the blood flow is diverted through
the heart lung machine.

©       RA:  Right Atrium

©       Septum: dividing wall.

©       Shunt: an abnormal passage of blood between two blood vessels or between the two sides of the heart.

©       SV: Single ventricle

©       Stenosis: a narrowing of a heart valve or blood vessel.

©       SVC:  superior vena cava

©       Tachycardia: abnormally fast heart rate.

©       TAPVR: total anomalous pulmonary venous return/ TAPVC: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

©       TGA: Transposition of the great arteries

©       TGV:  transposition of the great vessels

©       TOF:  tetralogy of fallot

©       Truncus:  Truncus Arteriosis

©      Ventricle: one of the two lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle pumps to the aorta and supplies
blood to the body. The right ventricle pumps to the pulmonary artery and supplies blood to the lungs.

©       Ventilator: a machine that breathes for a patient or helps his or her breathing.

©       VATS:  Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

©       VSD:  ventricular septal defect


Kari Crawford, MS,APRN, BC, CPNP-AC
Pediatric Cardiology/Cardiac Surgery
Levine Children's Hospital
1000 Blythe Blvd.
Charlotte, NC 28208
Phone: (704) 444-3990